Mechanism of Action:
Abatacept is a synthetic fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1).
It acts as a selective co-stimulation modulator.
The mechanism of action of abatacept involves inhibiting T-cell activation, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Abatacept binds to CD80/CD86 receptors on antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and prevents the interaction between these receptors and CD28 on T cells.
By interrupting this co-stimulatory signal, abatacept inhibits T-cell activation, thereby reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and attenuating the immune response.
Indications and Uses:
Abatacept is primarily indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
It is used in adult patients with moderate to severe active RA who have had an inadequate response to other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as methotrexate.
Abatacept can be used alone or in combination with methotrexate or other DMARDs.
In addition to rheumatoid arthritis, abatacept is also approved for the treatment of other autoimmune conditions, including:
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): Abatacept is used in children aged 6 years and older with moderate to severe active JIA who have not responded adequately to other therapies.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): Abatacept is used in adult patients with active PsA who have not responded adequately to DMARDs.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): Abatacept is used in adult patients with active AS who have not responded adequately to conventional therapies.
Abatacept can be administered as an intravenous infusion or a subcutaneous injection.
The recommended dose for intravenous administration is based on body weight. Abatacept is typically given as an infusion over approximately 30 minutes at specified intervals, such as every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The infusion is usually performed in a healthcare setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Abatacept can also be self-administered via subcutaneous injection.
The recommended dosage and frequency of subcutaneous administration may vary depending on the specific condition and individual patient response.
Detailed instructions for subcutaneous injection should be followed carefully.
Common side effects associated with abatacept include:
Upper respiratory tract infections
Injection site reactions (for subcutaneous administration)
Other potential side effects that may occur but are less common include hypersensitivity reactions, serious infections, and malignancies.
It is important to monitor for signs of infection and discuss any unusual symptoms or concerns with a healthcare professional.
Abatacept can also affect the immune system and may increase the risk of certain infections, including tuberculosis.
Patients should be screened for latent tuberculosis infection before starting treatment with abatacept.
As with any medication, individual responses and side effects may vary. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for personalized information and advice regarding the use of abatacept, including specific risks and benefits based on individual medical history and condition.